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VPN protocols explained: Choosing the best protocol for secure and reliable connections

Verified by Nick Jones

In the vast digital landscape, the security and optimisation of our online connections have never been more crucial. At the heart of this are VPN protocols – the unsung heroes that keep our virtual communications secure and efficient. In this article, we delve into the world of VPN protocols, explaining their importance, how they work and the differences between the most common ones.

What are VPN protocols?

VPN protocols are the unsung heroes of your online security, working tirelessly behind the scenes to keep your data safe and secure. But what exactly are they?

In essence, VPN protocols are a set of rules that govern how data is transmitted between your device and a VPN. Think of them as the secret handshake of the digital world, establishing a secure connection or “tunnel” for your data to pass through. This tunnel shields your data from the outside world, keeping it safe from the prying eyes of cybercriminals, nosy internet service providers (ISPs) and overzealous surveillance agencies.

But these protocols do more than just create a secure tunnel. They also enable encryption, a process that turns your readable data into indecipherable gibberish. This means that even if someone were to intercept your data, they wouldn’t be able to understand it. It’s like sending a letter in a secret code – unless you know the code, the message is meaningless.

In addition to encryption, VPN protocols also handle authentication. This is the process of verifying that the parties involved in the communication are who they claim to be. It’s a bit like a bouncer checking IDs at the door of a club – it ensures that only authorised parties can access the connection.

So, while the term “VPN protocols” might sound intimidatingly technical, their role is simple: they are the guardians of your online security, working to keep your data safe and your connections secure. Whether you’re sending an email, making a bank transfer or just browsing the web, these protocols are hard at work, ensuring that your online activities remain private and protected.

Common VPN protocols explained

There are several VPN protocols, each with unique strengths and weaknesses. Let’s explore some of the most popular ones:


This open-source protocol is a favourite among many due to its high security and compatibility with various platforms. OpenVPN is a highly configurable open-source protocol known for its robust security. It uses the OpenSSL library for encryption, which supports a range of cryptographic algorithms (e.g., AES, Blowfish and Camellia). OpenVPN also supports several authentication methods, including pre-shared secret keys, certificate-based and username/password authentication. Its flexibility and security make it a popular choice for many VPN users.


Often used in combination with other protocols, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) secures data at the IP level, providing robust security. IPSec is designed to secure internet communication across an IP network. It operates at the network layer, enabling it to support all types of internet traffic. IPSec uses two protocols to provide security: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). AH provides authentication and integrity, while ESP adds encryption for confidentiality.


Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is often paired with IPSec to create a more secure VPN connection. On its own, L2TP does not provide any encryption. But when combined with IPSec, it provides encryption, authentication and integrity checks, making it a secure choice for VPN users.


Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is one of the oldest VPN protocols around. It’s fast and easy to set up, but it’s not the most secure option. PPTP has been found to have several security vulnerabilities, and it’s generally not recommended for sensitive activities.


Integrated with Microsoft’s operating systems, Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) offers strong security but is mostly limited to Windows devices.

Real-world applications and examples

Some examples of how these protocols can be used.

OpenVPN for privacy advocates

OpenVPN could be a good choice if you’re concerned about government surveillance. Its strong encryption and authentication methods provide a high level of security, protecting your data from prying eyes.

PPTP for streaming video

If you’re looking to stream content from another country and aren’t as concerned about security, PPTP might be suitable. Its speed makes it good for streaming, but remember, it’s not the most secure protocol.

VPN protocol comparison: Security features

Different VPN protocols offer varying security features. Here’s a comparison to help explain their differences:

Protocol Encryption Authentication Integrity
OpenVPN Yes Yes Yes
IPSec Yes Yes Yes
L2TP Yes Yes Yes
PPTP No Yes No
SSTP Yes Yes Yes

Encryption refers to the protocol’s ability to convert data into a code to prevent unauthorised access. Authentication, meanwhile, is the procedure of confirming the legitimacy of the entities involved in the communication process. Integrity ensures that the data has not been tampered with during transmission.

Encryption algorithms, authentication methods and key exchange protocols

Different VPN protocols use various encryption algorithms, authentication methods and key exchange protocols to secure your data. For instance, OpenVPN uses the OpenSSL library to provide encryption and supports various encryption algorithms, such as AES, Blowfish and Camellia. It also uses digital certificates for authentication.

In contrast, IPSec can use AES or 3DES for encryption, and it supports a range of authentication methods, including pre-shared keys and digital certificates. The key exchange is typically handled by the Internet Key Exchange protocol.

Encryption strength and performance impact

Encryption plays a crucial role in securing your data but can also impact the performance of your VPN. Encrypting and decrypting data requires computational resources, which can slow down your connection, especially if you’re using a protocol with strong encryption.

There’s often a trade-off between encryption strength and connection speed. Stronger encryption provides better security but can decrease the speed of your connection. Conversely, weaker encryption can result in faster speeds but less secure connections.

VPN protocol comparison: Performance characteristics

Different VPN protocols offer varying performance characteristics. Here’s a comparison of their key differences:

Protocol Speed Latency Stability
OpenVPN 4/5 3/5 5/5
IPSec 3/5 4/5 4/5
L2TP 3/5 3/5 4/5
PPTP 5/5 5/5 2/5
SSTP 3/5 3/5 5/5

Speed refers to the data transfer rate, latency is the delay in data transfer and stability indicates the reliability of the connection.

Compatibility with devices and networks

VPN protocols have differing levels of compatibility with devices and operating systems. For instance, OpenVPN is highly versatile and works well with a broad range of devices and operating systems, including Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS and Android.

While versatile, IPSec can be more challenging to set up on certain devices. L2TP/IPSec is natively supported on most platforms, making it a convenient choice. Although older and less secure, PPTP is also widely supported. SSTP, on the other hand, is fully integrated with Microsoft and works best on Windows platforms.

When considering network environments, some protocols may work better than others. For example, OpenVPN is highly configurable and can bypass most firewalls, making it suitable for use in restrictive network environments.

Choosing the best VPN protocol

Factors to consider

When choosing a VPN protocol, consider your security requirements, performance needs and compatibility with your device or network. If maximum security is your priority, protocols such as OpenVPN or IPSec are good choices. If your key concern is speed, PPTP or L2TP/IPSec might be suitable, but remember that their security is not as robust.

Which VPN protocol is the best for you?

The best VPN protocol for you depends on your specific use case:

  • Best VPN protocol for streaming: PPTP due to its speed, although its security is less robust
  • Best VPN protocol for gaming: L2TP/IPSec, as it balances speed and security well
  • Best VPN protocol for security: OpenVPN, due to its high level of security and configurability
  • Best VPN protocol for speed: PPTP, as it’s the fastest, but remember that it’s not the most secure


Navigating the world of VPN protocols may seem daunting, but understanding these protocols is the key to unlocking a secure and optimised online experience. Whether you’re a film enthusiast streaming the latest blockbuster, a competitive gamer seeking a lag-free session or a casual internet user browsing the web, there’s a VPN protocol tailored to your needs.

Each protocol, from the robust security of OpenVPN to the swift connections of PPTP, offers a unique blend of features. These protocols are the backbone of your VPN service, working behind the scenes to protect your data and enhance your connection.

Remember, the best VPN protocol for you hinges on your specific needs and circumstances. Are you seeking maximum security to safeguard sensitive data? If so, OpenVPN or IPSec might be your best bet. Are you after speed for seamless streaming or gaming? Then PPTP, despite its security shortcomings, could be the answer. Or perhaps you’re looking for a balance of both, in which case L2TP/IPSec might be your ideal choice.

In the end, understanding VPN protocols empowers you to make an informed decision, ensuring that your VPN serves as a reliable guardian of your online activities. So armed with this knowledge, you’re ready to delve into the digital world with confidence and peace of mind.

Frequently Asked Questions

OpenVPN is generally considered the most secure VPN protocol.

PPTP is usually the fastest, but it’s also the least secure.

Yes, but it can also affect your connection’s security.

While no technology is 100 per cent secure, protocols such as OpenVPN and IPSec offer robust security.

OpenVPN is a good choice, as it can bypass most firewalls and censorship.

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Mark Oldham


Mark is the IT Manager and a governor at Sir John Thursby College, in Burnley, having joined the college as an IT Technician more than 10 years ago. He also writes about IT, education, and cyber security topics, and has written a book, a guide to Windows 11.

For the Independent Advisor, Mark writes about the benefits of VPNs as well as cyber security and helping people stay safe online.

Nick Jones

Editor in Chief

Nick Jones is a highly experienced consumer journalist and editor, who has been writing and producing content for print and online media for over 25 years.

He has worked at some of the UK’s leading publishers including Future Publishing, Highbury Entertainment, and Imagine Publishing, with publications as diverse as Homebuilding & Renovating, TechRadar, and Creative Bloq, writing and editing content for audiences whose interests include history, computing, gaming, films, and science. He’s also produced a number of podcasts in the technology, science, gaming, and true crime genres.

Nick has also enjoyed a highly successful career in content marketing, working in a variety of topics such as health, technology, and finance, with market-leading global companies including Cisco, Pfizer, Santander, and Virgin Media.

Now the Editor-in-Chief of the Independent Advisor, Nick is involved in all aspects of the site’s content, where his expertise in finance, technology, and home products informs every article that’s published on-site. He takes a hands-on approach with our VPN content, penning a number of the articles himself, and verifying that everything we publish in this topic is accurate.

Whatever the area of interest he’s worked in, Nick has always been a consumer champion, helping people find the best deals and give them the information they need to make an informed buying decision.